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Nord Stream AG is studying viability of building the third and fourth lines. The Western European part of the project includes two transmission pipelines in Germany. Gazprom has also indicated that the majority of gas produced at the Shtokman field would be sold to Europe via the Nord Stream pipeline.

For this purpose, the pipeline from the Shtokman field via Kola peninsula to Volkhov or Vyborg in the Leningrad Oblast has to be built. There are two tranches. Work preliminary front-end engineering was done by Intec Engineering. The seabed was prepared for the laying of the pipeline by a joint venture of Royal Boskalis Westminster and Tideway.

For the concrete weight coating new coating plants were constructed in Mukran Germany and Kotka Finland. On 29 August Gazprom and E. In August , Nord Stream AG applied to the Finnish and Estonian governments for route studies in their underwater exclusive economic zones for the third and fourth lines. In May construction started at the Greifswald end point. The route of additional lines would mainly follow the route of existing lines, except in the Russian onshore and offshore sections.

Nord Stream 2 will start at the Slavyanskaya compressor station near Ust-Luga port, located 2. Its landfall would be at the Kurgalsky Peninsula on the shore of Narva Bay. Supporters of the pipeline, including Germany, believe that unlawful deference has been made to US wishes of the project not proceeding. They see it as undermining Europe's overall energy security and stability.

The pipeline project was criticized by some countries and environmental organizations such as the World Wide Fund for Nature. Opponents have seen the pipeline as a move by Russia to bypass traditional transit countries currently Ukraine , Slovakia , Czech Republic , Belarus and Poland. Critics of Nord Stream say that Europe could become dangerously dependent on Russian natural gas, particularly since Russia could face problems meeting a surge in domestic as well as foreign demand.

Putin's Russia and the Threat to the West , published , Edward Lucas stated that "though Nord Stream's backers insist that the project is business pure and simple, this would be easier to believe if it were more transparent.

The Russian response has been that the pipeline increases Europe's energy security, and that the criticism is caused by bitterness about the loss of significant transit revenues, as well as the loss of political influence that stems from the transit countries' ability to hold Russian gas supplies to Western Europe hostage to their local political agendas.

An anti-trust investigation against Gazprom started in revealed a number of "abusive practices" the company applied against various recipients in EU and Nord Stream 2 was criticized from this angle as strengthening Gazprom position in EU even more and European Commission officials expressed the view that "Nord Stream 2 does not enhance [EU] energy security".

In June , Germany and Austria criticized the U. Senate over new sanctions against Russia that target the planned Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline from Russia to Germany, [] [] stating that the United States was threatening Europe's energy supplies. Swedish military experts and several politicians, including former Minister for Defence Mikael Odenberg , have stated that the pipeline can cause a security policy problem for Sweden.

Nord Stream AG asserted that a fibre-optic control cable was neither necessary nor technically planned. Deputy Chairman of the Board of Executive Directors of Gazprom Alexander Medvedev has dismissed these concerns, stating that "some objections are put forward that are laughable—political, military or linked to spying. That is really surprising because in the modern world Russian and German officials have claimed that the pipeline leads to economic savings due to the elimination of transit fees as transit countries would be bypassed , and a higher operating pressure of the offshore pipeline which leads to lower operating costs by eliminating the necessity for expensive midway compressor stations.

Opponents say that the maintenance costs of a submarine pipeline are higher than for an overland route. In , former Gazprom chairman Rem Vyakhirev claimed that the project was economically unfeasible. Before construction there were concerns that during construction the sea bed would be disturbed, dislodging World War II -era naval mines and toxic materials including mines, chemical waste, chemical munitions and other items dumped in the Baltic Sea in the past decades, and thereby toxic substances could surface from the seabed damaging the Baltic's particularly sensitive ecosystem.

The impact on bird and marine life in the Baltic Sea is also a concern, as the Baltic sea is recognized by the International Maritime Organization as a particularly sensitive sea area. According to Nord Stream AG, this was not a suitable route for the pipeline because of the planned conservation area near Hogland, subsea cables, and a main shipping route. Russian officials described these concerns as far-fetched and politically motivated by opponents of the project.

They argued that during the construction the seabed will be cleaned, rather than endangered. Concerns raised, that originally Nord Stream AG planned on rinsing out the pipeline with 2.

Nord Stream AG responded that glutaraldehyde would not used, and even had the chemical been used, the effects would have been brief and localized due to the speed with which the chemical breaks down once it comes in contact with water. A lot of munitions have also been dumped in this sea. In November it was reported that the pipeline will run through old sea mine defense lines and that the Gulf of Finland is considered one of the most heavily mined sea areas in the world.

Nord Stream AG detonated the mines underwater. The agreement to build the pipeline was signed ten days before the German parliamentary election. However, this guarantee expired at the end of without ever having been needed. This has been widely described by German and international media as a conflict of interest , [] [] [] the implication being that the pipeline project may have been pushed through for personal gain rather than for improving gas supplies to Germany.

Information about the German government's guarantee was requested by the European Commission. No formal charges have been filed against any party despite years of exhaustive investigations. In February , the Swedish prosecutor's office started an investigation based on suspicions of bribery and corruption after a college on the island of Gotland received a donation from Nord Stream. The Amber project foresees laying a natural gas pipeline across the Tver , Novgorod and Pskov oblasts in Russia and then through Latvia and Lithuania to Poland, where it would be re-connected to the Yamal—Europe pipeline.

A Nord Stream spokesman has stated that only one sunken ship is in the vicinity of the planned pipeline and added that it would not be disturbed. In addition to the wreck of the Soviet submarine, there are sunken ships on the route of Nord Stream in the Bay of Greifswald and in the Gulf of Finland. The ship in the Bay of Greifswald is one of 20 sunk in by the Swedish navy to create a physical barrier across the shallow entrance to the Bay of Greifswald coastal lagoon.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Nord Stream Location of Nord Stream. Russia in the European energy sector. Energy portal Russia portal Engineering portal Transport portal Economy portal. Retrieved 8 November Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 26 May Archived from the original on 19 June Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 15 February Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 31 January Archived from the original on 28 September Retrieved 3 August Archived from the original on 4 January Retrieved 6 April Archived from the original on 26 April Retrieved 26 April Nord Stream AG 1.

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A team can acquire players through any of the three ways: Players sign up for the auction and also set their base price, and are bought by the franchise that bids the highest for them. Unsold players at the auction are eligible to be signed up as replacement signings. In the trading windows, a player can only be traded with his consent, with the franchise paying the difference if any between the old and new contract. If the new contract is worth more than the older one, the difference is shared between the player and the franchise selling the player.

There are generally three trading windows—two before the auction, and one after the auction but before the start of the tournament. Players can not be traded outside the trading windows or during the tournament, whereas replacements can be signed before or during the tournament. The term of a player contract is one year, with the franchise having the option to extend the contract by one or two years. Since the season, the player contracts are denominated in the Indian rupee , before which the contracts were in U.

Overseas players can be remunerated in the currency of the player's choice at the exchange rate on either the contract due date or the actual date of payment. This received significant opposition from franchise owners who complained that richer franchises were "luring players with under-the-table deals" following which the IPL decided to include domestic players in the player auction.

Since the players in IPL are only contracted for the duration of the tournament less than two months , the weekly IPL salaries are extrapolated pro rata to obtain average annual salary, unlike other sport leagues in which players are contracted by a single team for the entire year. The others teams are not awarded any prize money.

The IPL rules mandate that half of the prize money must be distributed among the players. IPL games utilise television timeouts and hence there is no time limit in which teams must complete their innings. However, a penalty may be imposed if the umpires find teams misusing this privilege. Each team is given a two-and-a-half-minute "strategic timeout" during each innings; one must be taken by the bowling team between the ends of the 6th and 9th overs , and one by the batting team between the ends of the 13th and 16th overs.

Out of the thirteen teams that have played in the Indian Premier League since its inception, two teams has won the competition three times, one team have won the competition twice each and three other teams have won it once each.

The Mumbai Indians and Chennai Super Kings are the most successful team in league's history in terms of the number of titles won. The Kolkata Knight Riders have won two titles, and the other three teams who have won the tournament are the Deccan Chargers , Rajasthan Royals and Sunrisers Hyderabad. The current champions are Chennai Super Kings who beat Sunrisers Hyderabad in the final of the season to secure their third title and thus became the joint most successful team in IPL history ever with Mumbai Indians.

It is an ongoing competition with the leader wearing the cap throughout the tournament until the final game, with the eventual winner keeping the cap for the season. Not just in India, but internationally also," IPL not only negotiated a tough pitch but also ultimately came out on top as a true winner. This IPL season has grabbed the eyeballs for all the right reasons with a relatively controversy free tournament, coupled with some scintillating on-field performances which have brought the spotlight back on the game.

According to the director of the company: The league has delivered financially for the players, franchisees, sponsors and India as a whole, prompting a strong desire among a range of stakeholders to appropriately value it.

To ensure continued development, management and team owners will have to explore innovative ways of engaging fans, clubs, and sponsors. Team Brand Valuation in , [69]. Sony would be responsible for domestic television, while WSG would handle international distribution. Viewership numbers were expected to increase further during the season due to the industry adoption of the new BARC ratings system, which also calculates rural viewership rather than only urban markets.

On 4 September , it was announced that the then-current digital rightsholder, Star India a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox , had acquired the global media rights to the IPL under a five-year contract beginning in Star CEO Uday Shankar stated that the IPL was a "very powerful property", and that Star would "remain very committed to make sure that the growth of sports in this country continues to be driven by the power of cricket".

He went on to say that "whoever puts in that money, they put in that money because they believe in the fans of the sport. The universe of cricket fans, it tells you, continues to very healthy, continues to grow. What was paid in , that was India and cricket and IPL—all three have changed dramatically in the last 10 years. It is a reflection of that. For its inaugural season, Star aimed to put a larger focus on widening the IPL's appeal with a "core" cricket audience.

The network aimed to broadcast at least two hours of IPL-related programming daily from January until the start of the season, having organized televised announcements of player retention selections and new team captains. Viewership of the player auction, which featured pre- and post-auction reactions and analysis, increased six-fold to Star Sports stated that its in-season coverage and studio programming would focus more on the game itself and behind-the-scenes coverage of the IPL's teams, rather than trying to incorporate irrelevant entertainment elements.

The network introduced a new studio program known as The Dugout , which broadcasts coverage of matches with analysis from a panel of experts. Channel 9 —present [86]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The dynamic Twenty20 format has been designed to attract a young fan base, which also includes women and children. List of Indian Premier League awards. India portal Cricket portal Indian Premier League portal.

Retrieved 22 April Retrieved 12 February Retrieved 5 April The Times of India. Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 6 January Retrieved 28 December Retrieved 13 June Retrieved 22 August How it all started".

Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 12 December Retrieved 14 September Retrieved 26 March Chennai Super Kings and Rajasthan Royals suspended". Retrieved 31 December Retrieved 31 March Retrieved 4 September The New Indian Express. Retrieved 1 December Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 8 December Board of Control for Cricket in India.

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So Why Do You Need A VPN? There are several reasons why you need a VPN to watch the Premier League online. Geographical Restrictions ; These restrictions are placed on where the Premier League can be watched, due to licensing agreements between the Premier League itself and broadcasting companies. Watch Premier League Live Streaming Free xlusive.mlll online broadcasts neolive football. The Barclays Premier League (BPL, and sometimes referred to as the EPL – English Premier League – outside of the United Kingdom) launched in , and quickly became the world’s most popular sports league.