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SEC0111 - ISE 1.2 AnyConnect VPN RADIUS Authentication and Authorization (Part 1)

Nowadays a computer has an Ethernet adapter on its board. It is called "Onboard". The virtual Ethernet switch is called "Virtual Hub" in the software. The virtual Ethernet adapter is called "Virtual Network Adapter" in the software.

That Virtual Hub constructs an Ethernet segment. And you connect both the Virtual Hub and the physical network adapter on the server computer mutually. Then both segments of the Virtual Hub and the existing physical LAN are now combined and united as the single Ethernet segment. This situation is very similar that you attach the one-side of an Ethernet cable to the physical Hub and the other-side to the physical Ethernet adapter on the computer.

Not only similar, but it is also exactly same in the logical aspect of behavior of Ethernet. After you established the VPN connection, you can send and receive any protocols suitable for Ethernet. After once you understood the architecture of realizing method of SoftEther VPN, you will be able to understand that the potential possibilities for range of use of SoftEther VPN is almost infinite. The above example show you the way to construct a remote access VPN, but you can apply this way to make any other form of VPN.

It is very easy to build a site-to-site VPN. A Virtual Hub is a software-implemented Ethernet Switch. It exchanges packets between devices. Each Virtual Hub is isolated to others. As you know, there are many of protocols which can be used on Ethernet. Because these VPN protocols can carry only the upper layer of equal or more than layer You can derive a benefit from this advantage.

If your company uses some specified protocol for controlling a manufacturing machine, you can use it on the SoftEther VPN Session. No modifications on the software are needed to use such a protocol on the layer-2 VPN. You can enjoy any applications which are "local-network oriented" without no modifications. At first you have to create a virtual IP subnet, for example This method of remote accessing VPN is complicated because sometimes the network administrator has to design and modify the routing policy of the LAN.

It might cause a troublesome. For example, many protocols and applications are designed on the assumption that any broadcast IP packets can be passed between nodes. In the legacy VPN's situation, such applications cannot work normally.

The good instance is the file sharing protocol of Windows, everyone knows about it. No broadcast IP packets can be broadcasted beyond the differences of IP subnets. So such a mechanism for browsing the computer by Windows doesn't work well on the legacy VPNs. Moreover than mentioned above, you might have a trouble to use any protocols from remotely since legacy VPN protocols are lack of transparency of any kind of packets. But it is a rare case and lack of compatibilities for any situation. Because the circumstances of such a VPN Session are exactly same in the logical layer as the situation that you connect the Ethernet adapter on the laptop PC to a port of the Ethernet switch in the company.

Because of this characteristic you can use your laptop PC from anywhere and anytime as exactly same as you are taking a seat just in front of the company's desk. SoftEther VPN Client behaves as same as the computer is physically connected to the local area network.

Not only building a remote accessing VPN, but you can also establish the reliable link between or more sites. You can use such a link as a dedicated line, even if the physical underlay layer is a cheap Internet connection provided by ISPs. It is no matter of kinds of connection media to the Internet. Once you have established a VPN link between sites, after that, everyone on both sites can transmit any kinds of packets from a side to other sides.

You have to establish layer-3 tunnel due to limitation of such legacy VPN protocols. Then almost same problems always occur as similar to the situation of creating remote accessing VPN with legacies. The IP subnets must be different between each site. For example, Tokyo has to have And you cannot use any non-IP protocols, neither.

Not only such limitations, but also you have to design to separate IP subnets on each site. An IP subnet of a site cannot be overlapped to other sites. If you are a small company, it might become extra costs because such a designation of IP subnetting needs an adequate faculty to be conducted to prevent any trouble.

And if you are a big company and want to connect many sites mutually, it will be a nightmare situation. You have to manage a lot of subnets with an effort to keep preventing to collide against any other subnets. As mentioned former, the link between sites are always emulating as the Ethernet network cable of long distance.

You have no need to design anything special to fulfill your simple demand that you want to connect remote sites. You can simply think and design your network with VPN, as exactly same as you design traditional Ethernet network topology with hub-and-spoke mode. You can imagine the situation that there are three sites; Tokyo, Beijing and Shanghai, and every site have an Ethernet switch.

You can connect Ethernet network cables between them. Then every computer of each sites take an access to any computer of other sites. Establishing site-to-site VPN is very simple as that example. You will enjoy VPN communication between sites, without any modification of any settings of the server computers and so on.

All kinds of server services and inter-client-PC-communication applications will work well, with no difference between inside the same site and beyond the distance.

Then every endpoint of VPN sessions can send and receive any Ethernet packets. It is similar to a situation that there are some Ethernet switches on the same desk. Each Ethernet switch is not connected mutually so each Ethernet segment is independent.

But if you connect an Ethernet network cable between any ports of every switch, Ethernet segments will be united as you did. As same as that, you can create a link between virtual Hubs on the same computer if necessary.

It is called "Cascade Connection" or simply "Cascade". Cascade is a popular technical term of Ethernet. If a cascade connection is established, then every Ethernet segment on each Virtual Hub is now united as a single segment.

And you can also create a cascade connection between remote VPN Servers. Then each Hub is now united as a single segment. A computer which is belonging to Tokyo's Hub is now able to communicate to another computer which is belonging to Beijing's Hub.

Only the situation of existences of Virtual Hubs, cascades and VPN Clients is not so convenient, because every computers have to be installed VPN Client each and have to connect to a Virtual Hub in order to make a communication between computers mutually. In that usage, any computers which are outside of the Virtual Hub's segment cannot participate in the communication circle.

It is possible but not good for company use of VPN. The Local Bridge function can be used to extend an Ethernet segment in Virtual Hubs to the outside physical Ethernet segments. Local Bridge is a technology to unite the virtual Ethernet segment and the physical Ethernet segment. You company has an existing Ethernet segment on the psychical Ethernet switch. To realize a usable remote either accessing VPN or site-to-site VPN, you have to connect between the Ethernet segment on the Virtual Hub and the Ethernet segment on the physical Ethernet switch somehow.

The answer is to use Local Bridge. Local Bridge can be created for a purpose to make two segments to exchange Ethernet packets mutually. Practically, Local Bridges must be applied between a Virtual Hub and an Ethernet network adapter which is connected to the physical Ethernet switch.

So in order to use Local Bridge you need dedicated physical Ethernet adapter. In fact, the Ethernet adapter can be shared with other purpose, such as transmitting packets physically to the Internet in order to keep the VPN Session, but it is highly recommended to prepare a dedicated one due to performance matter. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

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A Layer 2 MPLS VPN is a term in computer xlusive.ml is a method that Internet service providers use to segregate their network for their customers, to allow them to transmit data over an IP xlusive.ml is often sold as a service to businesses. Layer 2 VPNs are a type of Virtual Private Network (VPN) that uses MPLS labels to transport data. The . Online Sample Chapter Layer 2 VPN Architectures: Understanding Any Transport over MPLS Downloadable Sample Chapter. Full Ethernet Virtualization. The key concept of the method of realizing VPN by SoftEther VPN is the full virtualization of Ethernet segments, layer-2 Ethernet switches and Ethernet adapters.